Computational structure-based protein design (CSPD) is an important problem in computational biology, which aims to design or improve a prescribed protein function based on a protein structure template. It provides a practical tool for real-world protein engineering applications. A popular CSPD method that guarantees to find the global minimum energy solution (GMEC) is to combine both dead-end elimination (DEE) and A* tree search algorithms. However, in this framework, the A* search algorithm can run in exponential time in the worst case, which may become the computation bottleneck of large-scale computational protein design process. To address this issue, we extend and add a new module to the OSPREY program that was previously developed in the Donald lab to implement a GPU-based massively parallel A* algorithm for improving protein design pipeline. By exploiting the modern GPU computational framework and optimizing the computation of the heuristic function for A* search, our new program, called gOSPREY, can provide up to four orders of magnitude speedups in large protein design cases with a small memory overhead comparing to the traditional A* search algorithm implementation, while still guaranteeing the optimality. In addition, gOSPREY can be configured to run in a bounded-memory mode to tackle the problems in which the conformation space is too large and the global optimal solution cannot be computed previously. Furthermore, the GPU-based A* algorithm implemented in the gOSPREY program can be combined with the state-of-the-art rotamer pruning algorithms such as iMinDEE and DEEPer to also consider continuous backbone and side-chain flexibility.